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Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics

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This article aims to study that perception and to examine its predictors in three Asian cities that are culturally dominated Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics Confucianism. From Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics to Januarya cross-sectional survey of 17, adolescents and young adults, aged 15—24 years old, in both urban and rural sites Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics three Asian cities Hanoi in Vietnam, Shanghai in the mainland of China, and Taipei in Taiwan was conducted through interview and computer-assisted self-interview for sensitive questions.

Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were performed to identify the predictors for their perception of homosexuality. The percentage of adolescents and young adults who hold a positive view of homosexuality i. In these three Asian cities composed of populations whose views are largely influenced by Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics, adolescents and young adults mainly hold a negative perception of homosexuality.

Sexual orientation is generally defined by whether one is erotically attracted to males, Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics, or both [ 1 ]. Although with the normalization of homosexuality, people's positive perception of homosexuality has gradually increased, negative perceptions—for example, negative attitude, heterosexism, and homophobia—nevertheless widely abound.

Public surveys on the causes of homosexuality, Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics critical component of people's overall perception of homosexuality, have shown the percentage of respondents Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics attributed same-sex attraction to biological causes has risen over time, but is still not the view of Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics majority.

Results about attitudes toward the legalization of homosexual relations — indicate there had been little change over four decades. The World Values Survey and national statistics for 35 countries [ 89 ] also document that while positive attitudes toward homosexuality have increased from toan overall negative perception was still prevalent.

In contrast to Western countries, in East Asia extending from China across Korea and Japan and into Vietnam where Confucianism dominates the value system, people may hold a more negative view of homosexuality.

Traditional family values and gender role values, important components of Confucianism, emphasize the continuity of the family lineage—regarded as the most significant duty of the Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics emphasize the cultural standards of femininity and masculinity, respectively. Thus, homosexuality may be seen Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics jeopardize human reproduction and the maintenance of the family line and to violate traditional standards of what men and women should be.

The less knowledge of homosexuality people have, the more negative view of homosexuality they hold. As a result of these negative views Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics both the heterosexual and the homosexual communities, homosexuals are exposed Changing attitudes towards homosexuality Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics various forms of discrimination, prejudice, and physical and verbal abuse which have contributed to their marginalization and made them vulnerable to a variety of health problems.

The homosexual might suffer a variety of negative feelings and psychological problems such as loneliness, anxiety, and depression [ 1011 ]. In Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics with such Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics feelings Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics the related emotional pain, the homosexual may use or abuse substances such as tobacco, alcohol, and drugs [ 1213 ]. More seriously, the homosexual may suffer tendencies leaning to deliberate self-harm and suicide [ 14 — 16 ].

It is clear that homosexuals face considerable challenges from the heterosexual population as well as from themselves. Efforts to improve the perception of homosexuality require an understanding of the factors related to those perceptions. However, most studies on these issues have been conducted in Western populations [ 1718 ], and adolescent's perceptions of homosexuality have seldom been established in non-Western societies that have Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics largely Confucian in orientation.

Data for this article come from a cross-sectional survey of 17, male and female, married and unmarried adolescents and young adults, aged 15—24 years, conducted in urban Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei and rural areas included in their large metropolitan districts by a team of researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the Population and Health Research Center in Taiwan's Bureau of Health Promotion, the Shanghai Institute for Planned Parenthood Research, and the Hanoi Institute for Gender and Women's Studies.

Multistage sampling methods were used to ensure representativeness within each city. In Hanoi and Shanghai, both private residences and group living facilities were sampled. In Taipei, students were interviewed in school, with a small non-student subsample interviewed at their private residences and group Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics facilities.

The survey was developed by the research team, translated, back-translated, and pilot tested in each site. Interviewers received extensive training. Most of the interview was conducted face-to-face, except that computer-assisted self-interview was used for sensitive questions.

Societal attitudes toward homosexuality vary...

All aspects of this study received approval from the Committee on Human Research Office at the Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics Hopkins University as well as the collaborating local organizations. The dependent variables were based on a questionnaire item that sought each respondent's perception of homosexuality.

The following question was asked: Control variables, including site Hanoi, Shanghai, Taipei and gender male, femalewere used as stratifying factors in the analysis. There were 21 items related to sexual and reproductive health knowledge which were measured on 2-point Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics scales—disagreement 0 and agreement 1: The higher the score, the greater is the respondent's knowledge of sexual and reproductive health.

Considering the differences across sites, the sexual and reproductive health knowledge was grouped into three categories based on their respective tertiles across sites when used for comparisons. The Changing attitudes Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics homosexuality statistics were summed up respectively by group.

The higher the score, the more traditional the respondent's respective family values and gender role values. Family values and gender role values were then grouped into three categories based on their respective tertiles across sites. Then, a PSP score of 0—7 was assigned: The higher the score assigned, the more permissive the respondent. The sexual attitudes toward male's premarital sex and those toward female's were then grouped into three categories based on their respective tertiles across sites.

Considering the three Asian cities with Confucian-based cultures differ in economic development and modernization and Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics been open to outside influences socially, culturally, and economically for different periods and in different ways.

By contrast, males and females are different in physiological and Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics characteristics, social roles and status, and these are, in turn, affected by the political and economic contexts of their nations. All analyses were gender stratified and performed separately for the three sites. Then, the Pearson's chi-square test and, for Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics cell counts, Fisher's exact test statistics were calculated to detect the differences in perception of homosexuality across related variables.

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Finally, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics the predictors for perception of homosexuality. Statistical analysis was conducted with Statistical Package for Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics Sciences software version Statistical significance was judged by a p value of. The proportion of respondents in each city was about equally distributed by gender and age-group.

The percentage of respondents who self-identified as nonheterosexual bisexual and homosexual for males and females were respectively 2. The percentage of respondents reporting ever same gender sexual contact were 1.

Among respondents who self-identified as nonheterosexual, 1. It should be noted that the percentages were higher than those of their heterosexual counterparts in the three cities, with the exception of females in Shanghai and males in Hanoi. The percentages of respondents who thought of homosexuality as normal were very low among Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics males and females.

These figures increased from Hanoi Similarly, the percentages of respondents who thought homosexuality was acceptable, although greater than the percentage who thought it was normal, were not high, particularly Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics Hanoi and Shanghai: It should be noted that the percentages of males who found it acceptable were lower than those of females, except for Hanoi.

Bivariate analyses of perception of homosexuality and variables thought to be related were performed using chi-square tests.

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Multivariate logistic regression results reveal that no factor is significantly related to the perception of homosexuality as normal or acceptable across every gender and city stratification; however, several are significantly associated across many of the stratified groups Table 5. Considering the very small proportion of married respondents in the sample, marital status was not included in the regression analyses.

Urban residents hold significantly Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics positive attitudes toward homosexuality than their rural counterparts for males and females in Shanghai normal and acceptablefemales in Taipei normalmales and females in Hanoi acceptable.

Controlling for other factors, age was found to be negatively associated with the perception of homosexuality as normal only in Taipei, with no significant effect elsewhere. Higher economic status was significantly associated with perceived acceptance of homosexuality for respondents in Hanoi, females in Shanghai, and males in Taipei. Only females in Hanoi with higher economic status were more likely to consider Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics as normal.

A higher education level Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics associated with a perception of homosexuality as normal by females with a college Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics of education in Shanghai and Taipei and university level in Taipei, and perceived as acceptable to university level Hanoi males and females and Shanghai females.

Multivariate logistic regression model predicting respondents' perception of homosexuality: Males who self Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics as nonheterosexual in all three cities tended Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics have a positive perception of homosexuality, whereas only females from Taipei who so identify felt the same way Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics with heterosexuals.

Greater knowledge about sexual and reproductive health is Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics with a perception of homosexuality as normal in Shanghai and Taipei males and femalesbut associated Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics the perception of it as abnormal among Hanoi males.

Attitudes on same-sex marriage by...

It is associated with a perception of acceptable among males and females in Hanoi, males in Shanghai, and females in Taipei. Traditional family values are associated with a perception that homosexuality is unacceptable; though only among Hanoi females, family values are significantly related to the perception it is abnormal.

Traditional gender roles are associated with a negative view of homosexuality both as abnormal and unacceptable in nearly every gender and city stratification. A liberal attitude toward female premarital sex was also associated with a positive attitude toward homosexuality among Hanoi males, both genders in Shanghai, and considered normal for males in Taipei. Attitude toward male premarital sex was not strongly related Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics perception of homosexuality.

Most of research examining how homosexuality is perceived has been conducted in Western societies, and few studies have specifically targeted adolescents and Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics adults in Asian societies.

Results of the present study are consistent with findings in the literature: Adolescents and young adults with one or more of these background characteristics may have greater exposure to various and different social norms and values, particularly those Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics sexual orientation [ 24 ], and may be Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics likely to come into contact with people having a variety of lifestyles and ideas from a world beyond theirs [ 25 ].

Studies have demonstrated that having friends or relatives with a homosexual Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics or having prior contact with homosexual people is positively related to positive attitudes toward homosexuality [ 2627 ]. Still other studies [ 30 ] find that there are no age-related differences in perception of homosexuality. One possible explanation for these diverse results is that these studies examine different Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics of views Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics homosexuality among adolescents and young adults employing a variety of measures [ 28 ].

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The findings in this study are also mixed, with only adolescents and young adults in Taipei having a significantly more negative perception of homosexuality with age when controlling for other variables thought to be related to those perceptions.

As Schiappa [ 31 ] has noted, increased media viewing is correlated with a more favorable perception of homosexuality, and this relationship is most pronounced for those with the least amount of social contact with lesbians and gay men.

Media may be able to influence the beliefs of adolescents and young adults, particularly, for those who have little direct social contact. Newman [ 32 ] also underscores that media experiences may increase acceptance of sexual minorities.

Consistent with previous research [ 3033 ], our results demonstrate Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics adolescents and young Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics who self-identified in the survey as nonheterosexual, when compared with their heterosexual counterparts, are more likely to express a positive perception of homosexuality, notwithstanding that the percentage of nonheterosexuals was Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics low that it alone explained little variance in how positively or negatively homosexuality is perceived.

Nonheterosexuals are clearly in the minority and may face negative attitudes and even persecution resulting in negative self-image and other negative outcomes unless these issues are addressed. Additionally, this study found that increased sexual and reproductive Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics knowledge tends to be predictive of more positive views of homosexuality. Adolescents and young adults who have greater sexual and reproductive health knowledge may be better informed and be aware that homosexual orientation is Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics a disorder but is as normal as heterosexuality and is biologically based, inborn, and established early in life.

Researchers [ 183637 ] have also consistently found that the more traditional Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics conservative an individual adolescent's or youth's beliefs, the more negative a perception of homosexuality he or she has.

Confucian tenets characterize an individual's way of viewing the world— including homosexuality. Family values, gender role values, and premarital sexual attitudes are elements of traditional Confucian values. Therefore, an individual's values and attitudes about family, gender role, and premarital sex directly reflect how liberal one's beliefs are.

Individuals who hold more traditional Confucian values would be likely to have a Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics negative perception of homosexuality because they see homosexuality as threatening the traditional values they Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics dear, and Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics that homosexuals violate the established ideals of what men and women should be cultural standards of femininity and masculinity as well as traditional role relationships, that is, homosexuals are perceived as being gender inconsistent and violating social Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics [ 38 — 40 ].

As important, homosexuality threatens the principle of human reproduction: Confucianism emphasizes that people should procreate to carry on their family bloodline. This variation may be attributed to the differences between genders as well as to the different rates of modernization and economic growth to which the three cities have been exposed.

Although sharply divided, public attitudes...

By contrast, as has already been discussed, Hanoi VietnamShanghai the Chinese mainlandand Taipei Taiwan are three Asian cities with Confucian-based cultures, which differ in economic development and modernization and have been open to outside influences socially, culturally, and economically for different periods and in different ways. As one of the most Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics regions in Asia, Taiwan seems to parallel many developed countries in several social aspects.

The Chinese mainland, where increasingly open policies have been adopted since the late s, has experienced considerable change in economy and globalization of social culture. Vietnam has experienced considerable social change owing to economic reform since

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Changing attitudes towards homosexuality statistics

Dead ringer sex equality issues, such as civil partnerships, adoption and gay marriage, keep been the subject of considerable debate in modern years as governments receive passed various laws on the matter. These measures have sometimes elicited apprehension or critical responses from the leaders of sundry faiths and denominations as well as religiously-based stand groups.

However, the attitudes of ordinary religious adherents have changed significantly in recent decades, as the data presented here at one's desire show. This section provides a visual presentation of over-time data on gay rights issues, taken from various social surveys, seeing at on the attitudes of religious groups.

It uses the same number of categories for holy affiliation across social surveys: Anglican, Catholic, other Christian, and no religion. That section presents over eternity data which shows religions groups more general opinions on same-sex relationships and equality.

Across three decades, there is a unstop downward trend in the proportion within each series adopting a strongly disapproving view on the children. Figure 2 presents another measure of approval or disapproval, taken from the British samples from the different waves of the European Values Study EVS surveys , and The mean average scores are shown for four groups with higher scores representing more liberal attitudes.

Across groups, attitudes to whether homosexuality is justified or not have adorn come of more liberal over duration. In the mean scores of Catholics and those of no religion were almost identical: Anglicans and other Christians had condescend scores at 5.

Your email address has not been verified. Please press below to complete your registration. Already have an account? Sign in to Sixth Tone. Please ratify your email address on clicking the link in the email received from us. Please wait until the countdown has finished before clicking the resend button. Just fill in your email and we will help you reset your password. This is the second article in a series on gender and sexuality in China.

The first article can be found here. As a scholar of sexuality, I am often asked the same hackneyed questions:

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Who is in thr wrong? was i being way to over dramatic However, the attitudes of ordinary religious adherents have changed significantly in recent decades, clements-figures-attitudes-to-homosexualityf1. Changing Attitudes Toward Homosexuality in Taiwan, –, . the Taiwan Social Change Survey, the percentage of residents that..

Since then, support for same-sex marriage has steadily grown. And today, support for same-sex marriage is at its highest point since Pew Research Center began polling on this issue. See the latest data on same-sex marriage. The increase in the share of adults who favor same-sex marriage is due in part to generational change.

Younger generations express higher levels of support for same-sex marriage. However, all generational cohorts have become more supportive of same-sex marriage in the past decade.

Among people who are religiously unaffiliated, a solid majority have supported same-sex marriage since

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  • The percentage of adolescents and young adults who hold a positive view of Results about attitudes toward the legalization of homosexual relations in detail in “Levels of Change in Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Three Asian Cities” [19]. Gay or Nay: China's Changing Attitudes Toward Homosexuality. Fewer and Probably not. Any statistical increase has two possible causes.
  • Attitudes towards Gay Rights - British Religion in NumbersBritish Religion in Numbers
  • However, the attitudes of ordinary religious adherents have changed significantly in recent decades, clements-figures-attitudes-to-homosexualityf1.
  • Although sharply divided, public attitudes toward gays and lesbians are rapidly changing to reflect greater acceptance, with younger generations leading the. Changing Attitudes Toward Homosexuality in Taiwan, –, . the Taiwan Social Change Survey, the percentage of residents that.
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Societal attitudes toward homosexuality

University of Chicago Press. While conservatism includes people of many views, a significant proportion of its adherents consider homosexuals, and especially the efforts of homosexuals to achieve certain rights and recognition, to be a threat to valued traditions, institutions and freedoms.

Since the s, much of the world has become more accepting of same-sex sexuality between partners of legal age. Measures Dependent variables The dependent variables were based on a questionnaire item that sought each respondent's perception of homosexuality. Manliness and Impenetrability in Roman Thought", pp. It is associated with a perception of acceptable among males and females in Hanoi, males in Shanghai, and females in Taipei.

Lastly, we asked if they had ever engaged in sexual relations with the same sex.

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