December 23, — June 27, was an American religious leader and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement. When he was 24, he published the Book of Mormonand he had attracted tens of thousands of followers and founded a religion that continues to the present by the time Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal his death 14 years later.
Smith was born in Sharon, Vermont. Byhe had moved with his Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal to the burned-over district of western New York, an area of intense religious revivalism during the Second Great Awakening. Smith said he experienced a series of visions, including one in which he saw "two personages" presumably God the Father and Jesus Christ and others in which an angel directed him to a buried book of golden plates inscribed with a Judeo-Christian history of an ancient American civilization.
InSmith published what he said was an English translation of these plates called the Book of Mormon. The same year he organized the Church of Christcalling it a restoration of the early Christian church. InSmith and his followers moved west, planning to build a communalistic American Zion.
They first gathered in Kirtland, Ohio and established an outpost in Independence, Missouri which was intended to be Zion's "center place". During the s, Smith sent out missionaries, Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal revelations, and supervised construction of the Kirtland Temple. The collapse of the
Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal Kirtland Safety Society Anti-Banking Company and violent skirmishes with non-Mormon Missourians caused Smith and his followers to establish a new settlement at Nauvoo, Illinoiswhere he became a spiritual and political leader.
InSmith and the Nauvoo city council angered non-Mormons by destroying Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal newspaper that had criticized Smith's power and practice of polygamy. Smith published many revelations Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal other texts that his followers regard as scripture.
His teachings discuss the nature of God, cosmology, family structures, political organization, and religious collectivism. His followers regard him as a prophet comparable to Moses and Elijahand several religious denominations consider themselves the continuation of the church that he organized, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the Community of Christ.
Smith suffered a crippling bone infection when he was seven and used crutches for three years. The region was a hotbed religious enthusiasm during the Second Great Awakening. As a teenager,
Joseph smith mormon may have Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal sympathetic to Methodism.
Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal appeal
Years later, Smith Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal to have received a
Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal that resolved his religious confusion. The event would later grow in importance to Smith's followers, who
Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal regard it as the first event in the gradual restoration of Christ's church to earth.
Until the s, however, the experience largely unknown, even to most Mormons. According to his later accounts, Smith was visited by an angel named Moroniwhile praying one night in Smith said that this angel the location of a buried book made of golden platesas well as other artifacts, including a breastplate and a set of interpreters composed of two seer stones set in a frame, which had been hidden in a hill near his home.
Meanwhile, the Smith family faced financial hardship, due in part to death of Smith's oldest brother Alvinwho had assumed a leadership role in the family.
When Smith proposed marriage, Emma's father, Isaac Hale objected, primarily because he believed Smith had no means to support Emma. Later that year, when Smith promised to abandon treasure seeking, Hale offered to let the couple live on his property in Harmony and help Smith get started in business.
Smith made his last visit to the hill on September 22,taking Emma with him. He said the angel commanded him not to show the plates to anyone else, but to translate them and publish their translation. Smith said the translation was a religious record of indigenous Americans and were engraved in Joseph
Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal mormon sexual appeal unknown language, called Egyptian. He also told associates that he was capable of reading and translating them.
Although Smith had left his treasure hunting company, his former associates believed he had double crossed them and taken the golden plates for himself, which they believed should be joint property. In OctoberSmith and his wife moved from Palmyra to Harmony now OaklandPennsylvania, aided by a relatively prosperous neighbor, Martin Harris.
In FebruaryMartin Harris arrived to assist Smith by transcribing his dictation. Harris also took a sample of the characters to a few prominent scholars, including Charles Anthon. Harris said Anthon initially authenticated the characters and their translation, but then retracted opinion after learning that Smith claimed to have received the plates from an angel.
In any event, Harris returned to Harmony in Apriland continued as Smith's scribe. However, by JuneHarris began having doubts about the project, fueled in part by his wife's skepticism. Harris convinced Smith to let him take the existing pages of manuscript to Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal to show a few family members, including his wife. As punishment for losing the manuscript, Smith said that the angel returned and took away the plates, and revoked his ability to translate.
During this period, Smith briefly attended Methodist meetings with his wife, until a cousin of hers objected to inclusion of a necromancer" on the Methodist class roll. Smith said that the angel returned the plates to him in September
Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal Smith had previously refused to show the plates to anyone, he told Martin Harris, Oliver Cowdery, and David Whitmer that they would be allowed to see them. Later, a group of Eight Witnesses — composed of male members of the Whitmer and Smith families — issued a statement that they had been shown the golden plates by Smith.
The completed work, titled the Book of Mormonwas published in Palmyra on March 26,by printer E. Soon after, on April 6,Smith and his followers formally organized the Church of Christand small branches were established in Palmyra, Fayette, and Colesville, New York.
In probable reference to this period of flight, Smith said that PeterJamesand John had appeared to him and had ordained him and Cowdery to a higher Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal. Smith's authority was undermined when Oliver Cowdery, Hiram Pageand other church Joseph smith mormon
Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal appeal also claimed to receive revelations. On their way to Missouri, Cowdery's party passed through northeastern Ohio, where Sidney Rigdon and over a hundred followers of his variety of Campbellite Restorationism converted to Mormonism, more than doubling the size of the church.
When Smith moved to Kirtland, Ohio in Januaryhe encountered a religious culture that included enthusiastic demonstrations of spiritual giftsincluding fits and trances, rolling on the ground, and speaking in tongues.
Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal followers had also been practicing a form of communalismwhich Smith adopted, calling it the United Order. Converts poured into Kirtland. the summer ofthere were fifteen hundred to two thousand Mormons in the vicinity, many expecting Smith to lead them shortly to the Millennial kingdom.
In Jackson County, existing Missouri residents Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal the Mormon newcomers for both political and religious reasons. Smith advised them to bear the violence patiently
Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal after they were attacked multiple times, after which they could fight back. Smith ended the communitarian experiment and changed the name of the church to the "Church of Latter Day Saints," before leading a small paramilitary expedition called Zion's Campto aid the Missouri Mormons.
After the Camp returned, Smith drew heavily Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal its participants to establish five governing bodies in the church, all originally of equal authority to check one another. Among these five groups was a quorum of twelve apostles. In latea series of internal disputes led to the collapse of the Kirtland Mormon community.
He was also accused of engaging in a sexual relationship with his serving girl, Fanny Alger. In JanuarySmith and other church leaders created a joint stock companycalled the Kirtland Safety Society Anti-Banking Company, to act as a quasi-bank; the company issued bank notes capitalized in part by real estate. Smith was held responsible for the failure, and there were widespread defections from the church, including many Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal Smith's closest advisers.
During Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal time, a church council expelled many of the oldest and most prominent leaders of the church, including John Whitmer, David Whitmer, W. Phelpsand Oliver Cowdery.
Political and religious differences between old Missourians and newly-arriving Mormon settlers provoked tensions between the two groups, much as they had years earlier in Jackson County.
By this time, Smith's experiences with mob violence led him to believe that his faith's survival required greater militancy against anti-Mormons. In a speech given at the town's Fourth of July celebration, Rigdon declared that Mormons would no longer tolerate persecution by Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal Missourians and spoke of a "war of extermination" if Mormons were attacked.
They unleashed a flood of anti-Mormon rhetoric in newspapers and in stump speeches given during the election campaign. On August 6,non-Mormons in Gallatin tried to prevent Mormons from voting,  and the election-day scuffles initiated the Mormon War.
Non-Mormon vigilantes raided and burned Mormon farms, while Danites and other Mormons pillaged non-Mormon towns. Governor Lilburn Boggs then ordered that the Mormons be "exterminated or driven from the state". The following day, the Latter Day Saints surrendered to 2, state troops and agreed to forfeit their property and leave the state. months in prison with an ill and whining Rigdon strained their relationship. Meanwhile Brigham Youngthe president of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, to prominence when he organized the Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal of about 14, Mormon refugees to Illinois and eastern Iowa.
Smith bore his imprisonment stoically. Understanding that he was effectively on trial before his own people, many of whom considered him a fallen prophet, he wrote a personal defense and an apology for the activities of the Danites. Illinois accepted Mormon refugees who gathered along the banks of the Mississippi River,  where Smith purchased high-priced, swampy woodland in the hamlet of Commerce.
Smith also attracted a few wealthy and influential converts, including John C. Bennettthe Illinois quartermaster general. InSmith began revealing the doctrine of plural marriage to a few of his closest male associates, including Bennett, who used it as an excuse to seduce numerous women wed and unwed.
The early Nauvoo years were a period of doctrinal innovation. Smith introduced baptism for the dead inand inconstruction began on the Nauvoo Temple as a place for recovering Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal ancient knowledge. For women, Smith introduced the Relief Societya service club and sorority within which Smith predicted women would receive "the keys of the kingdom ". No longer envisioning the Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal of Zion in Nauvoo, Smith viewed Zion as encompassing all of North and South America, with Mormon settlements being " stakes " of Zion's metaphorical tent.
By mid, popular opinion had turned against the Mormons. After an unknown assailant shot and wounded Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs in Mayanti-Mormons circulated that Smith's bodyguard, Porter Rockwellwas the shooter.
Certain he would be killed if he ever returned to Missouri, Smith went
Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal hiding twice during
Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal next months, before the U. Two law officers arrested Smith, but were intercepted Joseph smith mormon sexual appeal a party of Mormons before they could reach Missouri.
Smith was then released on a writ of habeas corpus from the Nauvoo municipal court. In DecemberSmith petitioned Congress to make Nauvoo an independent territory with the right to call out federal troops in its defense. After receiving noncommittal or negative responses, Smith announced his own independent candidacy for President of the United States, suspended regular proselytizingand sent out the Quorum of the Twelve and hundreds of other political missionaries.
Smith said the Council had authority to decide which national or state laws Mormons should obey. By earlya rift developed between Smith and a half dozen of his closest associates.
On June 7, the dissidents published the first and only issue of the Nauvoo Expositorcalling for reform within the church and appealing to the political views of the county's other faiths as well as those former Mormons. Fearing the newspaper would bring the countryside down on the Mormons, the Nauvoo city council declared the Expositor a public nuisance and ordered the Nauvoo Legion to destroy the press.
Destruction of the newspaper provoked a strident call to arms from Thomas C. Sharpeditor of the Warsaw Signal and longtime critic of Smith. Officials in Carthage responded by mobilizing their small detachment of the state militia, and Governor Thomas Ford appeared, threatening to raise a larger militia unless Smith and the Nauvoo city council surrendered themselves. On June 27,an armed mob with blackened faces stormed Carthage Jail where Joseph and Hyrum were being held.
Hyrum, who was trying to secure the door, was killed instantly with a shot to the face.